Middleham Castle

In November of 1461, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, was sent to Middleham Castle in North Yorkshire into the household of his cousin, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, known as "The Kingmaker".   For the next three years, Richard learned the martial arts and social graces of his time.   Richard, Duke of Gloucester received the lordship of Middleham in 1471.  In 1472, he married the Lady Anne Neville and they retired to Middleham. As Lord of the North, Richard spent the next twelve years bringing peace and order to an otherwise troublesome area of England. Through his hard work and diligence, he attracted the loyalty and trust of the northern gentry. His fairmindedness and justice became his byword. He had a good working reputation of the law, was an able administrator and was militarily formidable. Under his leadership, he won a brilliant campaign against the Scots that is diminished by our lack of understanding of the region in his times.

He encouraged trade in Middleham and secured a license from Edward IV so the village could hold two fairs a year. He earned a reputation for fairness and incorruptibility. He listened to the common man’s grievances and performed many acts of kindness. One of his greatest achievements was the Scottish Border campaign where he led his retainers into Scotland on behalf of Edward IV.

He enjoyed a special relationship with the city of York and intervened on its behalf on many occasions. Richard, known to be a pious man, was instrumental in setting up no less than ten chantries and procured two licenses to establish two colleges; one at Barnard Castle in County Durham and the other at Middleham in Yorkshire. It is known that his favorite castle was Middleham and he was especially generous to the church raising it to the status of collegiate college. The statutes, written in English rather than Latin, were drawn up under his supervision.

We invite you to learn about Middleham Castle, the favorite residence of King Richard III and to discover the territory of the "Lord of the North".

Middleham Castle - "Windsor of the North"

Situated on the southern slope of Yoredale (Wensleydale) lies the formidable remains of Middleham Castle. The smallest town in Wensleydale enjoys the combination of horse racing and its connection with one of history's most famous residents, Richard, duke of Gloucester, later known as King Richard III.

History of Middleham

The history of Middleham begins in 1069 when Alan the Red, one of William the Conqueror's chief supporters were granted the land by Gilpatric. The first site, called William's Hill, sits 250 yards behind the current location of the castle. It consisted of a motte, surrounded by a ditch, and a kidney shaped bailey, also surrounded by a ditch. The entry of Middleham in the Domesday Book refers to the castle as "Medelai", a French corruption of the name meaning the center of a group of hamlets. The castle was given to Alan the Red who later granted it to his brother, Ribald, in or around 1083. After the death of his wife Beatrix, Ribald joined St. Mary's Abbey in York and granted his property to his son, Ralph. Ralph's son, Robert Fitzranulph began building the castle keep in or around 1170-80. The waterleaf carving in the small chapel is similar to the keep in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, which was built about the same time period.

The move from the location of William's Hill to its present location was more for comfort and less for defense. The keep held the great hall, the great chamber, the privy chamber, the chapel and two small chambers within the turrets. A high basement contained the kitchens and storage space.

In 1270, Robert de Nevill received Middleham through his wife, Mary, daughter and heiress of Ralph Fitzranulph. Mary is said to have established the church of St. Helen and St. Alkelda. Mary held the power in Middleham as her son Ralph proved to be a poor land manager. Their son, Robert Neville, referred to as the "Peacock of the North" for his colorful reputation, was killed in a border struggle. His brother, Ralph, who inherited Middleham, led an illustrious career taking part in the siege of Dunbar in 1337, the siege of Tournai in 1340, and the battle of Neville's Cross in 1346. His son John inherited Middleham after his death in 1367. John is responsible for the crenellation of Raby and Sheriff Hutton castles. His son, Ralph, inherited Middleham after his death in 1388. In 1397, he became Earl of Westmoreland by Richard II and was given the Honour of Penrith. He supported Henry of Lancaster and received the Honour of Richmond enabling him to unite his Durham and Wensleydale property.

He served under Henry VI and Henry V as Warden of the Marches. In 1388, he secured a grant allowing Middleham to hold an annual fair to be held on the 5th of November and a weekly market. With his first wife, he had nine children. His second wife, Joan Beaufort, sister of Henry VI, gave him fourteen. He obviously needed to enlarge the castle. He rebuilt the southern and western ranges, raised the curtain wall increasing the building to two storeys, provided timber bridges which were linked to chambers, and added a new privy chamber in the south range. The southwest and northwest towers were heightened.

After Ralph's death, the lands of Raby and Middleham were divided to his two sons. Richard, Earl of Salisbury inherited Middleham in 1440 after the death of his mother, Joan Beaufort. He was a supporter of his brother-in-law, Richard, Duke of York and met his end at the battle of Wakefield in 1460. He is buried at Bisham Abbey in Berkshire.

Richard Neville, known as the "Kingmaker" inherited Middleham from his father. His distinguished career, wealth and power surpass any architectural improvements he might have made at Middleham. After his death at Barnet in 1471, Richard, duke of Gloucester was granted his estates north of the Trent. Richard received the lordships of Middleham, Sheriff Hutton and Penrith. With his marriage to the Lady Anne Neville in July of 1472, he acquired the lordship of Barnard. In 1475, Richard received the lordship of Skipton, and in 1478, Richmond and Helmsley.

Richard lived for twelve years in the north earning the respect of the northern gentry. His son, Edward, Prince of Wales, was born at Middleham castle in 1472. Some believe the Round Tower to be the birth site though there has never been any evidence to substantiate it. After Richard's death, Henry VII seized Middleham where it remained under the crown until 1604. Under James I, Middleham was given to Sir Henry Linley. In 1613, it changed hands to Edward, Viscount Loftus. In 1662, it was sold to Edward Wood. Samuel Cuniffe-Lister, the first Lord Masham, made some repairs; but in 1906, the second Lord Masham, sought to repair it and employed Walter Brierley of York. As you enter, the round tower and other parts of the castle today, you will note an "M" initialed with the date of when repairs were made under his direction. In 1925, the castle was placed under auspices of the Office of Works, later known as English Heritage.

Tour of Middleham Castle

Today as you stroll among the ruins of Middleham, it is difficult to comprehend the importance of Middleham; the layout of the castle, the various duties that were required to run the castle and the amount of people that lived and worked at the castle.

After the battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury, Richard received the castle and additionally an estate. The lordship of Middleham contained manors, parks, and seven forests that spread throughout the moors and forests. It is estimated that 300 people were utilized to run the castle alone on a daily basis.

A generous sum of the revenues that were received was spent on the retainers as well as the household officials who ran the castle. Some of the household positions were the cook, brewer, baker, keeper of the wardrobe, estate officials such as accountants, parkers, and foresters. Some of the families who were retainers to Richard were once under the lordship of his father-in-law, Richard Neville. The Conyers, a prominent family of the north, served under the "Kingmaker" as well as Richard. John Conyers was a formidable man in the north and played a key part in transferring loyalty from Neville to Richard. Other families such as the Mountfords, Pudsays, Markenfelds, Masons, Metcalfs, Beverly, Talbot, Burgh, Claxton and Redman, to name a few, were contracted to Richard during times of war and peace.

Today, we enter Middleham Castle through the northern gate, or as it is more commonly known the "Neville Gate"; but in Richard's time, the entrance into Middleham was through the east gatehouse. As you pass through the first archway, remnants of leftover timber remain, in the second gate, of the great portcullis. The gatehouse, three storeys high, contained a guardroom and self-contained chambers above. The chambers were reserved for officers of the household. The outside of the gatehouse was elaborately designed with turrets at the corners. Stone figures and gargoyles adorned the top similar to Raby and Alnwick Castles.

The entrance into the keep was on the east side. There were three archways, enclosed by a stone wall with no roof. The entrance had an arch with gate; the second archway contained a small guardroom, and the third gate was large enough to contain twenty men as they waited their turn to see the Lord of the North.

The keep of Richard's day would have been entered through the great staircase on the east side but today we enter the castle from the south wall bringing you into the cellar. On the right side of the wall, are steps that will lead you to the top of the castle. You can view William's Hill with the hills of Wensleydale in a truly panoramic view.

The chapel connected to the keep was entered through the anteroom. Below the chapel were two chambers, living quarters for the priests conducting services and a vestry. No fireplaces exist within the chambers. Imbedded in the chamber walls are the remnants of indentation in the stone for large candles or torches.

The great hall is commanding with the cellar and small chapel. There were square windows in the north and south walls. Considering the spaciousness of the hall, the walls were plastered and whitewashed to bring in as much light as possible. At the south end of the kitchen is a large fireplace and inserted fireback. Within the sidewalls were recesses for cupboards and in the south wall was a drain cut for disposal of waste.

As we move up to the first floor, we now enter the great hall itself. The great hall occupied most of the upper area except for the south side that served as pantry and servers. The great hall had many functions from festive banquets to hearing petitions, administering laws and settling disputes. The small chapel, on the north side of the hall, was used for the family of the household.

The west side of the keep showcases single windows in the north and south walls and five narrow and square headed windows set high within the walls. Two wells, one on either side of the keep still can be seen along with round stone pits used for storing live fish. There is another inserted fireplace and wall drain extending to the outside of the wall.

This part of the castle was strictly utilized for the preparation and cooking of the meals and storage of food supplies. The kitchen staff no doubt lived in this area of the castle. Above, on the second floor was the great chamber. On the east side was a fireplace and recesses that held cupboards. A doorway in the northeast corner led to a smaller chamber. A door in the west wall of the great chamber led to a latrine projecting out of the west side of the keep. By its side was a stone wash basin and on the north side was a single window. On the west side there were three single windows but they were destroyed and replaced with a large window. It is this area of the castle that it is speculated that Richard ordered the installation of the window to allow more light into the chamber.

On the south side was a private chamber for Richard’s personal use. On the east side of the wall was a fireplace and cupboard recesses, a doorway that led to a latrine on the west tower, and a doorway to a small vaulted chamber. On the south wall, are four square headed windows with round arches, two on the west and two on the south walls. A third window was set at a higher level on the south wall. The roofs over the chambers was pitched and open. During Richard’s time, he replaced the roof that was less pitched adding a mezzanine chamber to the south side. Openings were cut into the southern walls giving access to the wooden bridges linking the keep to the south or range wall.

In 1538, a survey of the castle reveals the architectural changes and additions. A second wooden bridge was added from the great chamber into the west range; at the top of the keep in the tower was a dovecote and belfry.

The lower part of the south side was built during the 1300’s while the second floor was added from 1400 onwards. The buttresses at the outside of the wall were utilized to strengthen the wall. The first floor contained two small ovens, a horse mill and a ladies chamber. The upper story is typical of the other chambers of the castle holding a fireplace, latrine and recesses for cupboards - all to accommodate the growing number of people who lived within the castle. The Round Tower is reputed to be the birthplace of Prince Edward, the son of Richard, Duke of Gloucester and the Lady Anne Neville. The survey of 1538 merely refers to it as the "Rounde Towre. Next to the tower on the first floor is the "nursee" (nursery) and it is suggested that this was perhaps Edward’s birthplace. There is no evidence either way.

The second floor of the west side of the castle held four large chambers with the typical accommodations. On the first floor there also were four chambers but they did not appear to be as lavish as the upper floor giving speculation that those occupying the second floor would have been more important or of higher rank. The central tower held eight latrines, two on each floor; above on the third floor were two smaller chambers. The intricacy of the staircases entwining and going off in various directions is a splendid piece of architecture. The north side of the castle was the administrative section of the castle. On the first floor, next to the gatehouse was the auditors chamber, the ground floor west of the small tower was the auditors kitchen. The rest of this area of the castle again held self contained chambers. The east side of the castle typically goes un-noticed yet this was the most active and interesting part of the castle. As you finish viewing the main chapel, you will notice a large mass of remaining stones. The stones mark the remaining parts of the east gatehouse that led into an outer courtyard. Most castles of this time had more than one courtyard and there is evidence that Middleham had two. Entrance into the castle was from the east side. The outer courtyard held the typical buildings such as the smithey, stables, slaughter houses and perhaps lodgings for other people who worked in and for the operation of the castle.

While it now lies in ruin, Middleham, has not forgotten its most famous resident. The remains stand proudly as a silent sentinel as a symbol of glory days gone by.

In 1994, The Richard III Foundation, Inc., donated a replica of King Richard III's banner to the castle where it is showcased on important events in the castle.  In 1997, the Foundation donated a chalice to the church that is used on the important Ricardian dates for King Richard III, his queen, Anne Neville and their son, Edward, Prince of Wales.  In prior years, the Middleham Restoration Endowment, Inc., a division of the Foundation, raised funds for the fabric of the castle that was used to repair the lintels on the north wall and other preservation work done on the south wall.   


The Collegiate College of Middleham

In 1478, Richard, Duke of Gloucester created the Statutes for the College at Middleham.  If he had not been killed at the Battle of Bosworth, Middleham would have been raised to a seat of learning such as Cambridge and Oxford.  

The Statutes ordained by Richard, Duke of Gloucester for the College of Middleham, dated July 4, 1478.

RICHARD, DUC OF GLOUCESTRE, grete Chamberleyn, Constable and Admiral of Englond, Lord of Glomorgan, Morgannok, Bergavenny, Richemond and Middelham, to all Christen people to whome thes presents shall come, greting in our Lord everlasting.—KNOW ye yt where it haith pleasid Almighty God, Creatour and redemer of all mankind, of His most bounteuouse and manyfold graces to enhabile, enhaunce and exalte me His most simple creature, nakidly borne into yis wretched world, destitute of possessions, goods and enheretaments, to the grete astate, honor and dignite yat He haith called me now unto, to be named, knowed, reputed and called Richard Duc of Gloucestre, and of His infynyte goodnesse not oonly to endewe me with grete possessions and of giftys of His divine grace, bot also to preserve, kep and deliver me of many grete jeoperd’, parells and hurts, for the which and other the manyfold benyfits of his bounteuouse grace and goones to me, without any my desert or cause in sundry behalves shewed and geven, I, daily and ourly according to my deuty remembering the premisses, and in recognicion yt all such goodness cometh of Hyme, am finally determyned, into ye lovying and thankying of His Deite, and in ye honour of His Blissed moder our Lady Seint Marie, socour and refuge of all sinners repentant, and in the honor of the holy virgyn Saint Alkyld, --of part of such goods as He haith sent me, to stablisshe, make and founde a Collage within my town of Middelham at the parrishe church yr, in which shall be a deane, sex prests, foure clerks, sex queresters, and a clerk sacristan, to do divyne service yr daily, to pray for ye good astates of ye King our Soverayn Lord and ye Quene, and for ye gude astates of my lady and moder Duchesse of york, and of me, my wiff, my son of Salesbury, and such oy’ issue as shal pleas God to send me, whiles I liffe; and for the soules of my said soverayn lord ye King, ye Quene, and of me, my wiff, and myn issue after our decesses, and specilly for ye soules of my Lord and fader Richard Duc of York, of my brethren and susters, and oyer my progenitours and successors, and all Christen soules, in part of satisfaccion of suche things as at ye dredfull day of dome I shal answere for. The same my Collage to be called and named for ever ye Collage of Richard Duc of Gloucestre, of Middelham, and to be ordained, stablsshed, and made followingly,--Cum metuendissimus dominus noster et Christianissimus princeps Edwardus, Die gratia Rex Angliae et Franciae, et dominus Hiberniae (Ireland), vicesimo primo die Februarii, anno regni sui decimo septimo, per literas suas patentes de gracia sua speciali concesserit, et licentiam dederit pro se et heredibus suis, quantum in ipso fuit, michi prefate, duci, qoud ego, heredes, vel executores mie, in honore Domini nostri Jhesu Christi et Beatissimae Virginis Mariae, et Sanctae Alkildae, quoddam collegium apud Middelham de decano et sex capellanis et quator clericis, & c.

(The document, of which the above is the beginning, then proceeds to recite the license of Edward IV., and after making William Beverley, first dean; Laurence Squier, Williiam Symson, Richard Cutler, William Buntyng, Hugh Leverhede and John Bell, the first chaplains; Thomas Patrik, Alexander Bank, William Brown, and Richard Walker, the first clerks; John Part, Thomas Sexten, William Sturton, William Griffith, Henry Farefax, and John Essam, the first chorister; and William Nanson, the first clerk; and giving to them half an acre of land, and one messuage in Middleham "pro mansione eorundem, quae quidem dimidia acra jacet infra unum clausum voc. Burton close, exparte boriali cimiterii ecclesiae,--et unam acram terrae in Middleham jac. Inter aquam de Quenhill….ex parte boreali, et simitam quae ducit de Middelham usque Wendeslaw, ex parte australi, cum advocatione ecclesiae de Middleham."—proceeds as follows.)

I the said Duc statute, make, and ordeyne by thauctoritie forsaid, that hereafter no maner persone by me or myne heirez, have or shal have graunt to be deane of my said Collage y’unto admitted affore he be prest, nor any of ye saide sex prests be admitted as chapleyn or chapleyns of my said Collage afore that he or they have taken thordure of presthode, and yat ye said dene and prests be always named by me and myn ehires for ever, and have y’letters of our collacion, and the deane to be admitted by the said sex prests, the eldest of yeme hyme his othe at high altare to be true deane and master y',’and observe and kep all ordinaunces and statutez and laudable custumes, and ye right and libertees y’of defend at his power, and y’after to say De profundis affore ye high altare, wt this collect Deus cui proprium, -- following the antetem fundatoris mei, etc., and y’upon bring hyme to his stall and put hyme in possession of the same; and the said prets by ye deane to be admitted after the forme and othe among oy’s hereafer folowing.

Also, yat the saide Sir William Beverley, dean, and his successours, have ye principall place and stall of the right side of the high quere of my said Collage, which stall I wilbe called oure Lady stall; and Sir laurence Squier forsade, the first prest yt shalbe admitted therto, occupie the principall place, and stall on the left side of the saide quere, and yat stall to be called Saint George stall; and the said Sir William Symson, secund prest, in the next stall to the deane on ye saide right side, and yt stall to be named Seynt Kateryn stall; and the foresaide Sir Richard Cutler, therd prest, the secund stall on the saide left side, that stall to be called Saint Ninian stall; and Sir William Buntyng to for rehersid, the fourt prest, the thirde stall on the ye said right side, the same to be called Seint Cuthbert stall; and Sir Hugh Leverhede above writen, ye fift prest, the third stall on the left side, the saide stall to be called Seint Antony stall; and Sir John Bell above writyn, the sext prest, the fourt stall on the saide right side, and yat to be called Seint Barbara stall; and two of the saide clerks on the saide right side, and ye oy’ two clerks and the clerk sacristane beneth yeme on the left side, at the assignacion of ye saide dean; and the sex queresters yere places accordingly as ye saide dean shal assigne yeme; and, whensoever any of the said prests decesse or resigne his stall, he yat in his rownme by me myne heires therafter shalbe presented to be alweys admytte by the deane to ye stall of hyme beying voide, which I will, statute and ordeyne to be perpetuall, and in likewisse the clerks to be admitted by hyme to such place as he woll assigne theireunto.

Also, that no deane of my saide Collage, yat for ye tyme shalbe after the saide Sir William Beverley now deane of ye same, in any wise be by me and myne heirez named, or by our collacion constituted and ordenyd to be deane y’, enlesse he be one of the said sex prests if eny of theme in litteral connynge, gude disposicion, and in worldely pollicie may be fondon able; and in defect of such emong theme I wol yt oon of the foure prests of my foundacion in the Quene Collage of Cambridge, abil in connyng, disposicion, and pollicie, as is affore rehersid, be, and for lak of such, yt a graduate, at the lest Master of Arte or Bachelor of Law, of the Universie of Cambridge forsaide, be named, constituted, and ordened to be deane of the same; and also yat none of the saide sex prests an fowre clerks so to be named prests or clerks y’by our collacion, as is afforsaide, in eny wisse be by the saide deane and prests admitted, affore yt they by yeme foundon sufficiently lierned, not onely in understanding and litterature, bot also in singing playne song, priked song, faburden, and descant of two mynymes at the lewt, or yat one of the saide foure clerks be a player uopn the organes, and daily as fot as it shalbe requisite and appoynted; and in case yt be the deane and prests y’for the tyme beyng any perst or clerk, so by me and myne heires named and to yeme presented, be founde insufficient in lernyng, as is aforsaide, that yen I will, yt upon that certificate of the same, yat I and my heires within twenty days then next folowing to name and present unto yeme an py’able persone, plenarly instruct in the said sciences, and elles I woll y’it shalbe lefull to the saide deane and prests after the saide twenty dayes to admytte to be prest or clerk yt, in the place and rowme beyng vacant, such one as they will ansewr fore and undertake unto me and myne heires, withoute coloure, fraude, or male engyne, to be in those behalves sufficient; which ther admisstion I will shalbe by me and my heires and my heires ratified and confermed, for the suretye of hyme so be theme admitted.

Also, I statute, make, and ordeyne yt the dean for the tyme being of ye said Collage shal perceyve yerely for his exhibicion all the provents, frutes, oblacions, and deuetees as appertenyd to the church of Middelham, in eny wise, before it was Collegiate, wt other things by me to be gevene to hyme, as herafter shalbe expressed; and yt eny of the saide sex prestes for the tyme being shal yerely preceyve by the nhands of the deane of my saide Collage, for the tyme being, of the revenues of such landes, cherches, and possessions as I have geven, amortised, and now graunted to my seid Collage, and herafter shal geve, amorteise, and graunt y’unto, for ther exhibicion, x.li.; and every of the saide foure clerks of the saide revenuse x. marks; and the clerk sacristane yerely of the same x. marks; and the saide foure clerks and the clerk sacristane alweys to be named and oresented by me and myne ehires, and admitted frome tyme to tyme by the deane of my saide Collage, for the tyme being; and yat the sex querestors be always chosen, elect and asmitted by the saide dean and more part of ye said prests, and by theme to be examyned of their abilitie in singing and brest, and that they by me saide deane shalbe founden of all maner necessaries theme belonging, as of mete, drinke, clothing, and other, for ye which the saide deane shall perceyve of the revenues afforsaide yerely xx.li.

Also, yt one of the said foure clerks yt shalbe electe by me and myne heires, in forme afforsaide admitted, be a man sufficiently lerned in practice of singing, aswel as in playne song, priked song, faburdon, countr’. descant of all mesures used in any Cathedrqll church or Collage, the same to teche the said sex queresters his connyng, and he to be named the maister and techer of yeme, for the which teching, labor, besynesse and attendance abowte the same, I wol that he have of ye said revenues by ye hands of the said denae, for tyme being, over the said ten marks of his wages of oon of clerks, yerely five marks; and if he be licenced for any reasonable cause, according to my statutes under writyn, to be absent for a season, that yan he to find a sufficiently persone plenarly instructe in ye said connyng duryng his said absence, to lerne, tech and instructe the saide queresters; and yat none of yeme longer abide as queresters yan ther brests serve theme to sing in childes voce, over ye space of half’s a yere at most.

Also, I do statute, make, and ordeyne that eny deane, yat for the tyme herafter shalbe of my said Collage, shalbe resident and continually abiding upon the same, and kep continuall houshold y’, and yt the said sex prests shal bord theme with hyme, and pay everich of eyme wekely for y’boord sextene pennez; and also the said foure clerks and ye clerk sacristane in like wise, and everich of theme to pay wekely twolf pennes, during the tyme yat yei be not maried; and if eny of theme happen to be maried and dwel within my towne y’, then he to be at his libertee nd chose in yat behalve, and ellys alweys y’ at bourd paying wekeley is afforsaid. And yt nouther the deane of my saide Collage, for the tyme being, nor the saide prests and clerks, in eny wise be absent frome my said Collage, over the spaces under written, that is to say, the deane over twenty and foure dayes in the yere, and everich of ye said sex prests sexteyn dayes in ye yere, and everich of ye said clerks over fiveteyn dayes in ye yere; so alweys yat ye said denae, prests, and clerks, for the tyme being, in eyny wise be not absent frome yens high principal fests, nor the saide to be absent frome thens, or any oy’ season at one tyme over the space of the saide twenty and foure daies, enlesse it be for the defense and well of my saide Collage, or sekenes or dissese, and yat notorily so knawne by the saide prests, withoute speciall licence of me and myne heyres, wt thassent of the saide prests; nor in like wise any of the saide prests be absent frome yens any of py’ season, at one tyme, over the space of sextene daies, nor eny of ye saide clerks over the space of fiveteyne daies, at one tyme, wtoute speciall licence of me and myne heires, wt thassent of the deane y’of, fir tyme being; and over yis I wol yt my saide ehires have auctoritee to graunt att y’pleasur to the saide deane, for the tyme beyng, with th’assent of the saide prests, twenty daies in the yere; and to every of the saide prests and clerks for the tyme beyng, wt thassent of the deane, twolf daies in ye yere; so alweys yt the saide deane be not absent high principall fests and oy’ seasons over the space of twenty and foure daies above saide at one tyme, enlesse it be for the defence and weele of my saide Collage, or sekenes, or disease, and so notorily by ye saide prests knowen, wtout speciall licence of me and myne heires wt thassent of the saide prests; nor eny of the saide prests and clerks in like wise be absent frome thens high principall fests or oy’ seasons over the space of sexteyne dayes one tyme, withoute like licence of me or myne heirez, with thassent of ye saide deane, or yat sekenesse or disease cause it: which yen I wil yat he or yey so beyng seke or diseasid be holde excused for the tyme of his or ther said sekenesse or disease: provided alwey yat over two personnes of the saide deane, prests or clerks I woll in noo wise shalbe absent frome yens at one tyme, nor none oder licensed to be absent unto their comyng home; and yat the saide prests geve licence to the deane at such tyme as he woll depart and have his daies, as isafforesaide, and yet in like wisse the deane geve licence to ye saide prests and clerks at such tyme as eny of theme woll depart and have y’daies; and over this yat none of ye said prests or clerks bring any straunger to dyne or soupe wt yeme within my saide Colage, withoute ye licence of the deane; and, if eny such licence be to eny of theme so graunted, yat yan he so asking licence pay for his straunger every mele two pennes: provided alweys yat if eny of yem bring ony of y’frends, alies, kynnesmen, or oy’ straunger to see the church or Collage, or make hyme or yeme chere, that then I woll yat the saide straunger so comyng be curtesly welcomed and served with brede and ale, so yat it be not ofte nor daly used.

Also, I statute, and ordeyne yat the saide deane, prests, and clerks shal distinctly, nother to hastely ne to tariyngly, bot mesurable and devoutely, kep divine service daily in my saide Collage, be note after the sue of Salesbury, yt is to say, matyns, messe, evensong, and complyn, and oy’ observances as herafter shalbe specified; and yat matyns begyn daily, frome the fest of ye Annuncicion of our Blissed Lady unto Michaelmesse, at sex of ye clok in ye mornyng, and frome Michaelmesse unto ye saide fest of Aunnunciacion, to begyn matyns at sevene of ye clok in ye mornyng, which done I woll yat prime and houres incontynent y’ after daily be saide in the highe quere by the prest, yat for ye woke shalbe Ebdomadarie, and the prest the woke yan next folowing shalbe Ebdomadarie; and yat ye saide prest Ebdomadarie kepe the charge for his woke of begynyng and ending of matyns, prime, houres, high messe, evenesong, complyn, and oy’ obervances, enlesse y’ fall principall fest or fests or the day of obytte of me or my saide wiff in yat woke; which if eny such fall I woll yat it be begon and ended by ye saide deane, if he be present, and by none oder, withoute sekenesse or oy’ cause lawfull lett hyme; and yat daily after matyns be saide ye anthem of Libera nos be songen descant, or fabourden, with a versicle and collect accustumed, and furthwith ye antheme of Saint Ninian Confessor, vel – Euge serve bone, with the versicle Amavit eum Dominus, etc., and ye colet – Deus qui populos Pictorum et Britorum, and y’ after by all the whole quere – De profundis, etc., with the colet – Fidelum, etc., and after the decesse of me and my wiffe ye colet of Deus cui proprium est miscre(r)e, etc., -- Propiciare animae famuli tiu Ricardi ducis Gloucestr’, fundatoris nostri, vel animae famulae tuae Annae consortis suae, eorum et liberorum, etc. And assone as prime and houres is saide, ye messe of our Lady to be song dayly, wt priked song and organes, wt ye maister, clerkes and queresters, except by there ordinall they say of our Lady, and except ye Friday wokely, which day I woll yat ye saide master, clerks, and queresters ye messeof Jhesu after prime and hous saide be song, and yat the prest yat wokely by course shall sing our Lady messe, ye messe of Jhesu, and high messe, during the liffe of me and my wiffe, say yis colet, --Deus qui caritatis dona per gratiam, etc. da famulo tuo Ricardo duci Gloucestr’ fundatori nostro, famulae tuae Annae consorti suae, famulo tuo Edwardo, eorumque liberis, etc. And after our decesse they to say yis colet – Deus cui proprium, affore rehersid. And after yat the messe of Jhesu be saide ye anthem of per signum Tau furthwith be songen, and yet colet of Visita nos quesimus, Domine, wt, ye colet of Deus caritatis, during my liff, and after my decesse – Deus cui proprium be said by the prest yat sang messe of Jhesu at the high altare or he put of his vestiment, and yat done, high messe to begyn by all the hole quere, and after high messe be said the antheme of Stella celi, to be song priked song, with the versicle – Ora pro nobis Sancta Dei genetrix, and ye colet – Deus misericordiae, Deus pictatis, Deus indulgenciae, etc., wt de profundis, etc., and yat evesong daily begyn frome the fest of thannunciacion of our Lady unto Michaelmesse, at foure of the clok at after none or before; and also I wol yat assone as evensong is said, yt the memory of the Trinite libera nos, a memory of Saint Niniane, and a memory of Saint George, with ther versicles and coletts accustomed, be songen priked song nyghtly, and also y’after an antheme of our Lady in ye myddys of the quere at the letterne be song, enlesse yat it be principall fests, and if ti be principall fest but onely an antheme of our Lady to be song at the lettern by all the hole quere, and yen de profundis; and yat every Friday nyght betwix five and sex of ye clok the antheme of Jhesu be songen, with the maister and clerks and queresters, and yat doone the suffrages appertenyng to the said Antheme be song and said by the said queresters, and yan furthwith ye antheme of Stella Celi be songen in like forme as before is saide, with the versicle and coletts –Dominus misercordordiae, and Deus qui caritatis, during our liff, and after our decesse, -- Deus cui proprium est miserere—with –de profundis, in maner affore expressid. And over this yat every Wedynsday, if it be not a principall fest, yt a messe of requiem by one of ye sex prests, at the assignment of ye said deane, be said after our Lady messe be saide; and yat the prest so saying that messe say ye collett of Inclina, Domine, aurem tuam, etc., wt these words – ut animas famuli tui Ricardi ducis Ebor., famulae tuae Ceciliae consortis suae, after her decesse, et aminas erorum liberorum et ominum fidelium defunctorum, and after our decesse to say this colet –Deus cui proprium, etc., with the colet of Inclina aforsaid, inmaner aforsaide. And, when so ever it shal please God to call me or my wiffe to His mercy, I wol yat the saide deane, prests and lerks kepe a solumpne obite the day of our decesses, if they have y’of knowlage, and else ye next day after yat they here first y’of, with Placebo, Dirige, and Commendacion ye nyght before to be song, enlesse it fall upon principall fests, which yan I wol yat it be deferred to the morn next y’after, and ye Dirige to be song after ye latter evensong of the said principall fest, and Commendacion to be saide after complun, in the saide quere, and in like wisse and order of moneth mynds, and twolf moneth mynds, and so yerely our obits to be kept the day of the moneth of our saide decesses for ever.

Also, I statute, make, and ordeyne that, in the admission of eny prest and clerk of the saide College, the prest and clerk so to be admitted by my collacion or myne heires shal make oth uopn the holy Evangeliste to the deane, for the tyme being, yat he shal observe and kep al statues and ordenances, with all other libertes and laudable custumes of the same College, in such as shal to hyme appertigne, or such oder laufull othe as shalbe thoght necessary by the saide deane in yt oartie to be maide, for weele of the saide College.

Also, I statute, make, and ordeyne yat in my saide College shalbe a chest surely maide, lokid with thre looks of diverse keys, wherof one shal remayne in ye keping of the deane, an other in the keping of the prest keping the stall of Saint Kateryn, and the third in the keping of ye prest for the tyme occupying the stall of Saint Ninian, within thte saide College, in the which chest I statute, make, and ordeyne yet the comon seal and principall jowelles and evidencez of the same College shalbe surely kepid.

Also, I statute, make, and ordeyne yat ichon of ye saide orests and clerks shalbe within the qwere by the third peal be rongen, and yar continually abide unto thending of divyne service, y’t to be done, for the tyme, every day, except such as be before rehersid in this myne ordinance, under payne of forfotor of one peny, als oft eny shal offend in this party, to be convertid into the necessarie reparacion of the saide College; and if y’be eny yat shal oftyn tymes use to be absent hyme self frome divine service agenst yis myne ordinance, yen I wol yat ye deane punysh hyme so customable absent at his resonable pleasor.

Also, I statute, make, and ordeyn yet evere Friday in ye yere the deane, if he be present, or in his resonable absence his depute shal cause assemble of the saide prests, clerks, and oy’ ministers of ye saide College to be maide in the chapitor house, and yen, after preciosa and other suffrages, according to the ordinall of Salisbery said y’, the said deane or his forsaide depute shal inquire of all maner of defaults and excessez of the prests, clerks, and other mynsters forsaide, committed and done in eny maner or forme in the woke preceding; and with payns in this myne ordinance comprised wher eny such payn is expressid, and els at his resonable wol and plesor, wt avise of one of the saide prests, corret and punyssh ye same defalts and excessez: provided always yt if eny of the saide prests or clerks oftyn tymes committing or doyng eny trespasse, defalt or excesse, ayenst yis myne ordinance, or opynly ayenst ye helth of his owne soule, after thre monicions contenyng resonable space unto hyme made by the forsaide deane at his arbitrement, wol not amend hyme self, yt yen the saide deane shal expulse hyme oute of the saide College for ever, wt oute hope of restitucion, and yt in every wharter of the yere ons the deane forsaide or his depute shal cause the statutes and ordinance of the same College to be opynly red in the same chapitor house.

Also, I statute, make, and ordeyn yat evere prest, clerk, and other ministers of the saide College in commyng to the qwere and goyng fro the same incline unto the deane, beyng in his stall, and ayenst hym commyng into the qwere or chapitor house reverently rias, and yat none of yeme presume to begyn matyns, masse, or evensong afor the commyng of the same deane, if he be present in the College and wol come to the same.

Also, I statute, make, and ordeyne yt none of the forsaide ministers hawnt tavern or oder unhonest place or persone at eny tyme, or lye out of the College eny nyght, withoute especiall license of ye saide deane, except such personnes and tymes as to be for except.

Also, I statute, make, and ordeyne yat one day betwix the fests of Estre and Witsonday yerely the deane shal rede, or cause to be red, unto the sex prests ane inventorie of all the jowelles and ornaments apperteigneyng unto the said College, for the tyme; and if the saide sex prests or thre of yeme think it expedient, really shew unto yeme the said jowells and ornaments, which I wil shalbe be surely kepid in chests or oder c…..and places within the saide College, in such maner and forme as shalbe thoght behovefull by the saide deane and two or ye eldest of ye saide prests; providid alwey yat the comon seal and principall jowells and evidence of the saide College be kepid in a chest liked with thre lokks of diverse keys, as is to fore rehersid.

Also, I statute, make, and ordeyne yet noo corrodie, annuitie or fee for terme of liff or yeres shalbe yeven or seld oute of the saide College, or isshewes y’of comyng, nor other thing alieynd to ye saide Colege pertignyng, by the deane and felowes of the same College, or eny of yeme, wtout expresse consent of me or myne heires patrones of the same.

Also, I statute, make, and ordeyne yat if eny prest, clerk, or oder ministre of the same College use at eny tyme in ire eny inhonest or slaunderous words ayenst felow, his superior or inferior, of the same College, he shal pay of his wagys at evere tyme two pennez. If he draw violently a knyff, he shal pay of his saide wage at evere tyme so diong four penys, and if he draw blode he shal pay of his saide wage as moch as the deane, wt one of the saide sex prests, shal resonable deme hyme to pay to be convectid in, to reparacion of the saide College.

Also, I statute, make, and ordeyne yat the deane of the saide College have rewle and administracion of all possessions spiritual and temporall, with all oy’ provents commyng of ye same, for the perfyte execucion of thies myne ordinances.

Also, I statute, make, and ordeyne yt the clerk sacristane have rewle and keping, under the deane, of book, chalesse, vestments, and all oder ornaments, which most be usid in the church of the saide College, which ornaments I wilbe delivered unto hyme by tripartite indentor, wherof oon part shal remayne wt ye deane, an oyr with the saide clerk, and the third wt the prest occupiyng the stall of Saint Kateryn; and two tymes in ye yere, to be limited by the saide deane, the saide clerk shal yeld his account conernyng the ornaments forsaide, and at all tymes according to yeffect of thies my statutes, and plesor of the saide deane, shal ring to matyns, messe and evenesong, and oder devine service, and over this shet and oppyn the church dures, at such convenient tyme as shalbe commaunde unto hyme by the saide deane.

Also, I statute, make, and ordeyne that the prests, clerks, and ministers forsaide, at all tymes and place behave yemeself reverently unto the deane, and hyme in all things lefull conernyng the profet, weele, and worship of the saide College, or eny of ye ministers of ye same, obey.

Also, I statute, make, and ordeyne that ye clerk sacristane shal obey the commaundments of the deane, aswel as serving in attendance in the church, as in other places pertignyng to ye cure of eny of ye parisshyns for the tyme within the parich of Middelham abiding.

Also, I statute, make, and ordeyne yt I and myne heires shal at al tymes bere thexpence and cost of evere messynger, which by the commaundment of ye deane or eny of the saide sex prests shal bring unto us certane knowledge of the vacacion of eny stall being within my saide College.

Also, I statute, make, and ordeyne yt the deane forsaide have al maner thethes and offeryngs within my castell of Middelham, as of all oder place within the parissh of ye church of Middelham, in eny wise appertynyng, wtoute let or interrupcion of ye deane of ye chapell of my saide Castell, or eny other ministre of the same.

Also, I statute, make, and ordeyne yat the deane of my saide College, at all tymes shal kep his stall and prioitee, as most principall of ye same, geving noo rowme or place to the deane of the chapell within my saide castell, or other commyng at eny tymw unto the saide College, church, to ministre divine service, under the dignitee of a prior by privilege using a miter.

Also, I statute, make, and ordeyne yat the deane at his pleasour shall see all things appertignyng unto the College in whos rewle or governance it shal fortune yeme to be, and yat all servants necessarily to be had for attendaunce and serving in ye saide College, or at eny other place, y’unto belonging, shalbe namyd and takyn at ye plesor of the saide deane, and at his saide plesor shalbe expulsed and put away.

Also, I statute, make, and ordeyne yat the deane for the tyme being, shal mow use and were in ye saide College and other place, as presence of reverend faders bisshopps, as other inferior unto theme, as grey amyse.

Also, I statute, make, and ordeyne that ye sex prests, clerks, and queresters shal mow use and were in the forsaide College at all tymes of divine service habites, accordingly to yabbitts used by such personnez in other honorable College churchys of the diocese of the church of Sarum.

Also, I statute, make, and ordeyne yat if it shal fortune the deane for the tyme being at eny season to be lawfully lett, as by sekenes or oderwise, to ministre service in ye church of ye saide College, after thaffect of myne ordinance to for rehersid, yen I wol yt it shal be lefull to the saide deane to name and depute at his plesor one of ye saide sex prests to ministre the same in his absence, and to execute at the expresse and speciall commaundement of ye saide deane al other things which he shuld do exercise if he wer presonally present; and in defalt of such commaundement, I wol the prest occvupiyng the stall of Saint Kateryn, in such absence of the saide deane, shal execute the premisses.

Also, I wol that the deane or suche of the prests of ye College as it list the deane to appoynt yerely, declare and show to all the parisshe and people aboute in such good forme as it list hym of his charitee to declare in the pulpite such statutes of this my first fundacion of the College, as the saide deane shal thinke expedient; that so redde and declared, I wol yat the deane or prest yat so dclarith it desire all the people about of y’ charitee to pray for my soule, thos yt can say de profundis, evere man of his charitee to say it secretly by hymeselfe, or with his felowe, wheder it pleas yeme, and to begyn hyme self as to say de profundis, and all the quere to say and answere him; and when he committh to the colett, then to say the colett, Deus cui proprium est miserere, etc., in maner and forme afforsaide, for me and my wiff, this to be done and declared at the evyne before yat ye yere day come of my deth alweys, as sone as yt evinsong is done; than incontynent to begyn before complyne first to declare and specifie, as is rehersid in this forsaide article, and incontinent y’after Placebo, Dirige, and yan complyn.


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